The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multi-strain probiotic formulation (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PBS067, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LRH020, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL050) to inhibit adhesion and growth of urogenital pathogens.
The antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties of the probiotic strains and their mixture were evaluated on human vaginal epithelium infected with Candida glabrata, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Escherichia coli-infected human bladder epithelium. The epithelial tissue permeability and integrity were assessed by transepithelial/transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Co-aggregation between probiotics and vaginal pathogens was also investigated to elucidate a possible mechanism of action.