Probiotic administration protects against weight gain in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nonetheless, the anti-obesity effects of probiotics in a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced obesity models are not well elucidated. Herein, C57BL/6N male mice were fed an HCD (70% kcal carbohydrate) for 12 weeks and were orally treated with multi-strain probiotics (MSPs) at 10^10 CFU or saline every day for 6 weeks. MSPs contained Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 24936, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DSM 24937, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri DSM 25175.
MSPs treatment not only ameliorated weight gain but also modulated the body fat composition altered by HCD. The MSPs also attenuated the expression of adipogenesis- and lipogenesis-related genes in HCD-fed mice. In addition, MSPs promoted the expression of lipolysis- and fatty acid oxidation-promoting factors in HCD-fed mice. Furthermore, MSPs modulated the expression of thermogenesis-related genes and the serum levels of obesity-related hormones altered by HCD. Treatment with MSPs positively reversed the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, which is associated with a risk of obesity. Hence, this study explores the multifaceted anti-obesity mechanisms of MSPs and highlights their potential to be used as effective weight-management products.